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PCBA Testing

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Printed Circuit Board Assembly (PCBA) testing safeguards against potential manufacturing flaws, ensuring the quality and functionality of electronics. PCBA test uses diverse automated methods. Some of them are computer vision measuring methods of electrical devices. It detects the joints of solder, placement, functionality, and hidden defects in devices. Manufacturers can navigate the complexities of increasingly complex PCB designs using different techniques to deliver reliable, efficient, and high-performing electronic devices. 

Let us look into the topic to understand these techniques, their features, and their crucial roles!

What is the PCBA Test?

The PCBA test is not very simple but covers broad and complex steps. It has been challenging to make a board and assemble all those tiny devices into it. Moreover, it is like solving a puzzle of small devices. PCBA test is critical to verify the complete connections.

PCBA test is a crucial step in the manufacturing process of electronic devices. It involves checking the quality and functionality of assembled printed circuit boards (PCBs) to ensure they meet specifications and standards. 

PCBA testing typically includes various automated methods such as visual inspection, electrical testing, and functional testing. These tests help detect defects like soldering issues, component placement errors, and functionality issues.

PCBA testing is the first step in determining the quality of the product delivery. It encompasses the value-based test for the boards with proper mounting of the electronic devices into it.

Common Types of PCBA Test

Here are some common types of PCBA Tests mentioned below:

Automatic Optical Inspection (AOI)

PCB Quality Control: AOI Inspection Process
  • Automated Optical Inspection (AOI) leverage cameras and computer vision to replace manual operations, upgrading quality and efficiency. 
  • These systems compare solder joints against predefined parameters using image processing algorithms. 
  • Identified defects are flagged for repair, streamlining the process. 
  • Advanced vision systems employ innovative techniques to improve defect detection further.
  • The Scope of Automated Inspection:
  • Automated systems can detect missing devices, polarity incorrectness, and solder issues. 
  • They provide valuable feedback on assembly quality and defect types, aiding process control efforts. 


Detection of circuit errors and hidden solder joints is much more difficult using the AOI method. 

AOI stations are a cornerstone of PCBA testing. It uses cameras and vision to verify assembly accuracy and solder quality, a complex task.

Testing covers pre and post-soldering, with some combining within the manufacturing.

Automated X-Ray Inspection (AXI)

AXI Testing

AXI is a non-destructive method with X-ray coupled with computer vision for inspecting PCBA. 

Unlike Automated Optical Inspection (AOI), AXI can penetrate the well-established connections for all tiny particles using soldering.

  • AXI technology has evolved from 2D X-ray scans to sophisticated 3D inspection methods for further analysis. 
  • The 3D approach focuses the X-ray beam on specific layers, eliminating image overlap in double-sided boards. 
  • This PCBA test method enables examining all Ball Grid Array (BGA) solder joints, including their top, middle, and bottom sections. 
  • Additionally, 3D AXI inspects and measures through-hole (PTH) solder joints with solder volume and optimal connection quality. 
  • Benefits of AXI: 
  • AXI detects hidden defects invisible to optical inspection, such as misaligned components and microscopic solder breaks. 
  • Due to their concealed solder joints, they are precious for BGAs and chip-scale packages. 
  • Guarantees long-term solder joint integrity and connectivity, resulting in superior detection rates compared to other methods.

AXI’s Contribution to PCBA Testing: 

AXI PCBA test stations play a vital role by uncovering faults beyond the reach of optical techniques. 

AXI ensures higher quality, improved reliability, and better-performing PCBAs.

In-Circuit Testing(ICT)

In-circuit testing
  • An automated production-line test uses component parameter measurement and functionality assessment to focus on process control.
  • Detects defects like open circuits, short circuits, and component damage, facilitating fault isolation and repair. 
  • Traditional needle-bed ICT employs physical contact with devices using a fixed needle bed for measuring the devices.
  • ICT offers the features of speed, cost-effectiveness, and suitability for high-volume, single-type production runs.
  • Limitations of Traditional ICT:
  • Increasing assembly density, devices with fine-pitch, and production diversity pose challenges for traditional needle-bed testers.
  • Accessing internal connections of large ICs and detecting open solder joints requires physical contact in the ICT method.
  • Modern Evolution & Upgrading in ICT: 
  • This enhancement with boundary scan technology makes the connections possible for the complex ICs.
  • Also, the vectorless techniques utilize AC signals to identify the open solder joints without any physical contact.
  • The other, Automated Test Program Generation (ATPG) software, simplifies the test program with the creation based on PCBA design data.

Flying Probe 

Flying Probe Test
  • Flying probe testing provided more economic benefits than in-circuit methods by decreasing testing costs.
  • The mobile probes it uses to mitigate the custom fixtures enhance the flexible test methods utilizing various PCB designs with no reconfiguration.
  • This PCBA test method facilitates streamlined testing. It is so since there is no requirement for fixture setup, resulting in a fast test procedure.
  • There is accurate testing with the designed points that enhances the reliability of the PCB test.
  • The flying probe method primarily focuses on proving that the devices are not powering the components under the test.

Besides, both PCBA test methods, ICT and Flying Probe, have analogous testing procedures. The pogo pins with the device under test (DUT) for measuring the electrical properties such as resistance and capacitance.

Functional Testing (FCT)


FCT methods accomplish the following steps:

  • Board Test (FCT): Board testing checks whether the whole circuit connection is working, including all the electrical parts connections.
  • Applying the board in work (Simulating the environment): It looks up the board and finds out if it is doing its job correctly or not.
  • Checking everything is perfect (Validating and identifying): This ensures everything works as planned and catches any mistakes in putting the board together.
  • Different from In-Circuit Testing: It focuses on wire connections and goes through the assembly.

Other PCBA test methods include:

Burn in Testing

Burn-in testing methods give more stress to the PCB at extreme conditions to fix the errors during operations.

However, it is less reliable, time-consuming, and has a low life span.

Fatigue Test 

The fatigue test method in the PCBA test is one of the high-frequency-based testing methods. However, this applies until the board works well since there will be troubleshooting on the board failure.

Aging Test 

Like the fatigue test method, the aging test gives a qualitative final product rather than its time-consuming nature. This method is also prone to detecting faults in a precise manner.

Equipment for PCBA Test

There are distinct PCBA test equipment to test the components. They are:

  • In-circuit testing machines
  • Flying probe machines
  • Workstations equipped with magnifiers
  • Automated optical inspection machines and systems
  • Automatic X-ray inspection machines and systems 
  • Ovens and chambers for climate/weather simulation.

What are the Common PCBA Defects?

  • Tombstoning, excessive solder, webbing/splashes, missing/damaged components, lifted pads, and open are typical defects in the PCBA test.
  • The PCBA testing helps to detect defects like faulty solder joints, missing/improperly mounted components, lousy wiring connections, corrosion, assembling issues, and incorrect components detection. 
  • Moreover, PCBA testing discovers mechanical faults, namely, inappropriate sizing, improper orientation, broken/misaligned pieces, cutting/loose screws, and so on.

Factors to Consider While Selecting PCBA Testing

  • When selecting PCBA testing, we must consider the reliability, personnel assistance, cost, result turnaround time, and addressing queries.
  • Also, the PCBA test-producing companies need to know about the safety and regulations standards regarding the equipment.
  • Also, the manufacturers of PCBA testing must focus on experiences for similar products. They should emphasize utilizing cutting-edge instruments and technology.

Future Trends in PCBA Test

The trajectory of PCBA test technology intricately links to the complexity of fabrication, with artificial intelligence poised to play a pivotal role. Integrating AI will enhance automation precision and reduce reliance on human operators. This evolution anticipates streamlining testing processes, minimizing the need for extensive programming.

The evolution of PCBA testing is integral to the entire PCB assembly process and represents the future landscape. Implementing diverse PCBA testing techniques, directly correlating with reduced final product defects, can gauge a PCB manufacturer’s reliability. Comprehensive PCBA testing highlights the importance of selecting manufacturers committed to thorough testing practices.


Q.1 What are the Common Differences Between ICT and FCT PCBA Testing?

ICT mainly focuses on electrical connections, their values, and identifying the defects during assembly. It is more suitable for high-volume production. This system leverages numerous test probes and custom Bed-of-Nails fixtures. These fixtures offer cost-effectiveness and faster results for mass-produced PCBAs. However, they require dedicated test points and need to be more flexible for varying board designs.

The FCT PCBA test method confirms the functionality of the device, operational aspects, and firmware. It employs robotic probes for measurement and swift contact but produces low-volume production. Its adaptability makes it suitable for diverse board types, even those lacking dedicated test points. 

Crucially, ICT and FCT tests do not apply power to the DUT but focus on measuring the electrical part. 

Q.2 Why is PCBA Testing Important?

PCBA testing is essential for finding flaws, confirming quality, and guaranteeing that electrical components operate as expected. Moreover, it ensures reliability, valuable insights in processing, and compliance with the standard. 

Q.3 What is the Reliability Test of PCBA?

A reliability test for PCBA involves subjecting the board to stress conditions, such as burn-in, fatigue, or aging tests, to assess its performance under extreme circumstances. In addition, temperature cycling test, vibrations and mechanical shock testing, humidity and moisture resistance test, electromagnetic compatibility test, and environmental testing. 

Q.4 When should we carry out PCBA testing?

PCBA testing should be conducted during various stages of the production cycle, including after assembly, to identify defects early and ensure the final product’s quality and reliability.



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About the Author
I am an Electrical and Electronics Engineer, and I have 5 years of work experience with electronics and communication jobs. I'm the full time content creator of ELE company.
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