A circuit board with numerous layers of conductive material is known as a multilayer PCB. An insulating substance is utilised to sandwich and bind these layers, forming a substrate that can support electronic components. The Multilayer PCBs, which are the most prevalent kind, have at least three layers of conductive material. PCBs with high-density interconnect (HDI): These PCBs are frequently utilised in high-frequency and high-speed applications because they have a higher component density than conventional multilayer PCBs. These PCBs are utilised in applications where the PCB needs to be bent or flexed and are made of flexible materials like polyimide. These PCBs combine the advantages of flexible and conventional multilayer PCBs. This article discusses in depth overview of Multilayer PCB.
Table of Contents
1. What Is a Multilayer PCB?
A multilayer PCB (printed circuit board) is a circuit board that has multiple layers of conductive material. These layers are sandwiched together and bonded with insulating material, creating a substrate that can be used to support electronic components.
Multilayer PCB is commonly used in a variety of electronic devices, such as computers, smartphones, and other types of consumer electronics. They are also used in industrial, military, and aerospace applications.
The multiple layers of conductive material in a multilayer PCB allow for more complex and flexible circuit designs, as well as increased component density and improved signal integrity. They also provide added support for components, increasing the overall reliability of the PCB. In addition, the increased component density and improved signal routing of multilayer PCBs allow for smaller and lighter PCBs to be designed.
1.1 Applications of Flex PCB
Multilayer printed circuit boards have grown in popularity recently across a variety of industries. One of the causes of increasing popularity is the rise in demand for small gadgets. Users may actualize denser designs with multilayer PCBs without sacrificing performance. Multilayer PCBs are widely used in many of the common items we use, from tiny wearables to vital communications equipment.
Do you want to know the applications for multilayer PCBs? The top six uses for multilayer PCBs Fabrication are covered in this article.
1.1.1 Medical Devices
The medical sector depends heavily on electronic equipment. The medical sector is embracing downsizing just like any other sector that depends on electronics. The demand for tiny gadgets in the medical sector has expanded as non-invasive treatment methods gain popularity.
1.1.2 Consumer Electronics
Consumer electronics, sometimes known as home electronics, refers to a broad range of electronic devices made for regular use. This typically includes technology for entertainment (smart TVs, music players, etc.), communication (smartphones, laptops, etc.), and kitchen appliances (microwaves, washing machines, etc.)
1.1.3 Industrial Electronics
Industrial electronics are very different from consumer electronics in many ways. They are subjected to unfavorable conditions such high temperatures, shock, vibrations, pressure, dust, and humidity.
1.1.4 Computers and Devices
Today, it is difficult for us to envisage a world without automation and computers. Multilayer PCBs are used in everything, including computers and associated devices like graphics cards, motherboards, computer mice, and more, due to their space-saving and functional qualities. Compared to other competing technologies, these PCBs can be developed to deliver higher performance at lower costs.
1.1.5 Military, Aerospace, and Defense
Similar to the aforementioned sectors, numerous militaries and defense applications are beginning to priorities multilayer PCBs. These PCBs are high-speed electronics that are favored for their small size, light weight, usefulness, and durability.
1.1.6 Telecommunication Electronics
Many telecommunications devices, including GPS and satellite applications, signal transmission, and other applications that call for longevity while keeping a high level of performance, use multilayer PCBs. Increasing-performance, sophisticated tiny devices are in high demand due to the advent of wireless technology.
2. Types Of Multilayer PCB
Multilayer printed circuit boards (PCBs) come in a variety of designs and serve a variety of functions in electronic systems and gadgets.
2.1 Standard multilayer PCBs
These multilayer PCBs are the most prevalent kind, and a variety of electronic systems and gadgets use them. They can have anywhere between 4 and 20 layers and are made up of numerous layers of laminated conductive and non-conductive materials.
2.2 High-density Interconnect PCBs
These multilayer PCBs, which have a lot of connections in a tiny space, are frequently employed in systems that need a lot of downsizing. They can utilize microvias and other approaches to enhance the number of connections, and they can have more layers.
2.3 Flexible PCBs
These flexible multilayer PCBs may be stretched and curved to fit into various shapes and places since they are constructed of flexible materials like polyimide. They are frequently utilised in gadgets like wearables and smartphones that need a lot of flexibility.
2.4 Rigid-Flex PCB
These multilayer PCBs combine the advantages of flexible and stiff PCBs. They can be employed in applications that call for both stiff and flexible PCBs since they have a combination of rigid and flexible layers.
2.5 Buried and Blind vias PCBs:
These are multilayer PCBs that employ vertical connections between layers known as buried or blind vias to enhance the number of connections while minimizing PCB size. They are frequently employed in high-speed and high-density applications.
3. Manufacturing Of Multilayer PCB
A multilayer PCB includes at least three or more conductive layers, and through-hole, blind, or buried vias are used to make the electrical connection between these conductive layers. The demand for complicated PCBs has greatly expanded as a result of the advancement of technology in the electronics industry. A few benefits of multilayer PCBs are their small size, increased robustness, high assembly density, low weight, etc. Due to these benefits, they are the finest option for practically all electronic applications, including consumer electronics, telecom, automotive, medical equipment, satellite communication, and many more.
3.1 Print The Circuit Design
On translucent film, a negative image is printed after being processed. In order to maintain layer alignment, registration holes are pushed.
3.2 Print The Copper for The Interior Layer
Copper is re-bonded to the laminate piece to act as the PCB structure before printing the inner layers.
3.3 Remove Unwanted Copper
The excess copper that is not protected by the photoresist is effectively removed, leaving only the necessary copper on the PCB.
3.4 Lamination The PCB Layers
Laying up the layers first, followed by laminating, fuses the fault-free layers together.
3.5 PCB Drilling
To preserve the stack, the PCB drilling is carried out based on the pre-determined drill spot utilizing an X-ray equipment.
3.6 Final Etching
During this phase, the necessary copper is shielded by the tin plating. Etching is used to remove the undesirable and exposed copper, and the PCB connections are appropriately made.
3.7 Solder Mask
The cleaned PCB panels have epoxy solder mask ink applied, and they are then subjected to UV light. To cure the solder mask, the board also goes through an oven.
3.8 Surface Finish and Skill-Screen
To improve the solderability of the components on the PCB, gold or silver is plated onto the PCB. This stage involves ink-jet silkscreen printing, which is followed by the final coating and curing procedure.
3.9 Electrical Test
Electrical testing is done by technicians to verify the PCB’s operation.
3.10 Profiling And Cutting
In this final step, PCBs are removed from the panels and examined before being packaged for shipping.
Now that we are aware of the various steps involved in producing a multilayer PCB, we can think about the main challenges encountered.
ELE Multilayer PCB Fabrication CAPABILITIES
|Materials||FR-4 / HTG150-180 FR-4 / CEM-1 / CEM-3 / Aluminum|
|Number of Layer||1-30 layers|
|Board Thickness||Rigid 0.2-4.0mm, Flex 0.01-0.25mm|
|Board Thickness Tolerance||5-10%|
|Board Cutting||V-cut, Routing|
|Copper Weight Tolerance||±0.15 oz|
|Min Trace Width||0.15mm|
|Min Space Width||0.15mm|
|Min Drill Hole Diameter||0.1mm|
|Silk Screen Min Line Width||0.15mm|
|Solder mask||Green, Red, Blue, White, Black, Yellow, etc.|
|Certification||ISO 9001:2000, ISO 14001, ISO/TS16949:2002, UL E203640|
|Suface Finish||HASL / Nickel / Lead Free HASL / OSP / Gold Plating / Immersion|
|Gold / ENIG / Rosin etc|
4. Advantages Of Multilayer PCB
Many features found on ceramic multilayer PCBs are absent from conventional circuit boards. It is superior to all other printed circuit boards because of these benefits. The benefits listed do not apply to a particular type of ceramic PCB. Instead, these are the common benefits that are present in the majority of multilayer circuit boards with ceramic bases. Among the benefits are.
- The reduced size of a multilayer printed circuit board (PCB) is often regarded as among its most significant advantages. Multilayer printed circuit boards (PCBs) are naturally more compact than other types of PCBs that offer comparable functionality due to their layered architecture. This is a significant boon for contemporary electronics, which are moving in the direction of becoming smaller, more portable, and more powerful; examples of such devices include smartphones, laptops, tablets, and wearables.
- When printed circuit boards (PCBs) are reduced in size, their weight also decreases. This is especially true when several connections, which were previously needed to interconnect distinct single- and double-layered PCBs, are removed in favor of a multilayered design. Again, this is good for contemporary devices, which are more geared toward portability.
- Single-layer and double-layer printed circuit boards (PCBs) are often of lower quality than their multilayer counterparts due to the amount of labor and planning that must go into the production of multilayer PCBs. Because of this, they also have a tendency to be more dependable.
- PCBs with several layers are typically more robust simply due to their design. These multilayer printed circuit boards (PCBs) must be able to endure not only their own weight, but also the heat and pressure that are needed to bind them together to function properly. In addition to these aspects, multilayer PCBs utilize many layers of insulation in the spaces in between the circuit layers, and they bind everything together using prepreg bonding agent and protective chemicals.
- Even while this is not true for all multilayer PCB assemblies, some of them do employ flexible building techniques, which results in the creation of flexible multilayer PCBs. In situations in which there is a possibility that there will be some minor bending and flexing on a semi-regular basis, this might be a very desirable quality to possess. Again, this does not apply to all multilayer printed circuit boards (PCBs), and the more layers that are included in a flexible PCB, the less flexible the PCB becomes.
- Multilayer printed circuit boards (PCBs) are assemblies that include numerous layers onto a single PCB. These boards have an extraordinarily high density. Because of their close proximity to one another, circuit boards are able to have more connections, and the inherent electrical qualities of the boards allow them to have a higher capacity and faster speed despite their smaller size.
- The power supply portion, the video processing section, and the display driver sections of a TV were all manufactured on separate printed circuit boards (PCBs), as we have seen in many older pieces of electronic equipment. In addition, they were connected to one another using a variety of different connections and sockets, which necessitated the use of sophisticated cabling. In modern LED televisions, the mother board, power supply, and LED driver circuit are all integrated onto a single printed circuit board (PCB). This allows for easier installation in the enclosure by requiring only a single point of connection, and it also reduces the amount of wiring and harness that must be used. When it comes time to make repairs or troubleshoot issues, this makes the process of installation and disassembly of the device much simpler.
ELE PCB is able to fulfil all of your needs for Multilayer PCBs, beginning with the prototype phase and continuing all the way through the production process. Because of our knowledge and experience in the field of manufacturing multilayer printed circuit boards, we hold a significant advantage over our competitors in the industry of generating printed circuit boards. In addition, we never promise a price that is greater than the prices offered by our rivals, and we never require customers to buy a certain minimum amount of any product with each order that they place.
5. ELE Technology Co. The Leading Multilayer PCB Manufacturer
Prototyping printed circuit boards (PCBs) is a useful technique for designers since it helps save time and money while guaranteeing a high-quality result. Get in touch with us right away if you need PCB prototype services for an upcoming venture.
Over 6,000 engineers and 200 contract assemblers from across the world rely on ELE PCB for their PCB prototype services. We pride ourselves on our dedication to quality and our ability to consistently provide fully functional prototypes that meet or exceed your requirements. Whether you need a simple two-sided FR4 board or a very complicated multi-layered prototype, our PCB design professionals have you covered. Your prototype may be provided by ELE PCB promptly, proficiently, and cheaply, with no hidden expenses.
Our method is straightforward; we utilize CAD software to plan the layout of the prototype, select the manufacturing material, and then cut and assemble the board. After that, the circuit board is complete and ready for testing. And when the time comes, we’ll assist you in making the jump from prototype to production.
ELE PCB is here to assist you if you’re in the market for professional PCB prototype services. Get in touch with us now and talk to a member of our service team about your PCB prototyping needs and how ELE PCB can fulfill them.